Cyclamen, he is dryakva, "pork bread" or "alpine violet" is a popular herbaceous perennial. "Kyklos" (cyclos) in Greek means "circle" - the root of this plant really resembles a circle. Cyclamen's homeland is Iran and the countries of central Europe, Asia, and the Mediterranean.
Cyclamen home has an attractive appearance. The heart-shaped leaves of dryak are located on long (20-30 cm) crimson-brown petioles and have a dark green color with silver-gray patterns. Unusual flowers of cyclamen have a whole palette of all shades from pale pink to maroon as well as white. Petals oval, slightly pointed upwards.
Depending on the variety, flowering takes place from the end of October to mid-April and lasts 2.5-3.5 months.
Cyclamen tubers have a flattened round shape, the diameter of which depends on the variety and age of the plant; he looks out of the earth a few millimeters. On the surface are the buds, from which subsequently grow leaves and flowers. After flowering, the tuber is completely bare, shedding leaves. It is important to know that the juice of a drywood bulb is poisonous and, upon contact with skin, causes irritation, redness and inflammation.
A variety of cyclamen species
There is a huge variety of varieties of both homemade cyclamen and wild. In total there are about 50 species of "alpine violet".
It is considered to be the progenitor of all cyclamen, the other varieties are taken as hybrids. The plant has a spherical tuber with a diameter of up to 15 cm, a wide range of colors: the petals are red, pale pink, purple and white. Persian cyclamen blooms at the end of autumn and early spring. Rest period - May-June.
It has a number of features, clearly separating it from other types of cyclamen. For example, a plant often has an irregular shape of a tuber covered with roots. In addition, the European cyclamen boasts a wondrous aroma, the intensity of which depends on the saturation of the color of flowers (the brighter the petals, the more pronounced the smell). This sort of dryakva does not shed its leaves even after flowering, which lasts from late May to late September.
The variety of home-made Alpine violet differs in the unusual for cyclamen form of leaves: their edges are jagged, reminiscent of ivy. Flowering does not last long, from September to early December. Differs in the fact that at first flowers grow, and only after leaves appear. Neapolitan cyclamen is most resistant to frost. Extremely negative reaction to transplantation.
These were the most common varieties of homemade cyclamen, which can most often be found in flower shops.
Beginners and even experienced growers who have come across alpine violet for the first time often wonder how to care for cyclamen at home. In fact, this plant is quite unpretentious, it is only important to create conditions for the cyclamen that are most similar to its natural habitat.
You should start by creating the ideal home lighting for cyclamen. This plant does not tolerate direct sunlight, and yet needs light. It is best to put dryakva in partial shade or a zone of diffused light. The western or eastern window is a great place to set up cyclamen there.
Observe the temperature and humidity. In the summertime, let's say the thermometer oscillation range is from + 19 ° to + 24 ° C; in winter, the temperature should not exceed + 16 ° C.
Cyclamen does not tolerate heat or dryness, so it is not recommended to place the plant near the batteries. In a particularly hot period, it is necessary to sprinkle the leaves of dryak as carefully as possible without falling on the tuber and flowers, or to put the pot with cyclamen on a tray with wet pebbles or expanded clay.
Overflowing the soil affects the state of the alpine violet more negatively than drying, because an excess of moisture leads to rotting of the tuber and the death of the plant. So how to water cyclamen? Watering is done in the pan so that the water does not fall on the tuber and shoots. Water used is distilled at room temperature.
Dryakva with pleasure accepts fertilizers and top dressing in moderate dosage. Liquid mineral fertilizers are used in the period of plant budding after watering no more than once a month.
When and how to transplant cyclamen?
Home cyclamen does not tolerate transplantation, so the longer the plant is in one place, the more abundant and more often it blooms. Transplantation is done only for several reasons:
- plant closely, tuber filled the entire space;
- it is necessary to replace the soil with a new one;
- cyclamen is defeated by diseases; pests have started in the soil.
Without much need you shouldn’t “pull up” the dryakva from the already familiar environment. But if transplantation becomes necessary, it is important to do it extremely carefully and correctly.
Transplantation of home cyclamen is done only after the plant has faded, closer to the state of leaving the hibernation. Cyclamen should not be transplanted more than two or three times a year.
Home cyclamen does not like large and very spacious pots. The new one should not be particularly larger than the previous one, the edges should not be further than 2-5 cm from the bulb.
This plant loves loose soil, so you should pay attention to the soil. It is recommended to shed a weak solution of potassium permanganate or steamed. You can buy special ready-made soil for cyclamen, and you can prepare it yourself. To do this, take the soil and organic matter (leaf soil, humus, coconut fiber, etc., as well as coarse sand) in a 1: 1 ratio. At the bottom of the pot put a layer of drainage, consisting of expanded clay, rubble, granite, pebbles, etc.
It must be remembered that the tuber must not be buried under any circumstances. On the surface of the earthy mixture should be his third-half. It is very important to observe the temperature, humidity and regular irrigation after transplanting.
Cyclamen multiplication at home
There are two ways to multiply home cyclamen: by dividing a tuber or by seed. However, the reproduction of dryakva - not an easy task, you have to work hard. Thus, for example, the first problem may arise is the fact that many varieties are divided only by seeds, the production of which is achieved by patience, prudence and accuracy.
To obtain cyclamen from seeds at home, the plant breeder will have to stay in the role of a pollinator bee: during flowering with a soft brush or cotton swab, pollen from one flower is transferred to another. To obtain the result, the procedure is repeated several times. Shortly before opening the box, cyclamen seeds are taken out and soaked for a day in a zircon solution, and then planted in the ground for growing seeds. Deepen the seeds do not need enough to lay on the ground and sprinkle with a layer on top. However, there is a simpler way: in specialized stores, ready-made cyclamen seeds are often sold.
Multiply cyclamen at home can be a different way - vegetative, dividing the tuber. The procedure is carried out only during the rest period of cyclamen. The tuber is cut into several parts, each of which must contain a kidney and roots. "Delenki" dried for several days, treating the sections with crushed wood or activated charcoal, after which they are planted in separate pots, completely powdered with a thin layer of earth.
And remember, even if you comply with all the conditions for the reproduction of cyclamen, it does not give one hundred percent probability of success.
Depending on the breeding method, cyclamen is grown from seeds and from a tuber. Each type of transformation of a plant part into a full-fledged flower requires effort and special care.
When growing cyclamen from seeds, it is necessary to create a small greenhouse immediately after planting. Capacity with seedlings watered a little and cover with plastic wrap. The optimum temperature for growing dryakva from seeds is approximately + 20 ° C. It is important to regularly water and air the seedlings.
After a month and a half sprouts appear, the landing needs to be moved to a cooler, but no less bright place. As soon as the seedlings grow small tubers and 3-4 leaflets, they need to be transplanted into separate pots. Cyclamen grown from seed begins to bloom only a year or two later after emergence from the sprout.
Growing cyclamen from a tuber is not so easy, because in most cases the bulb rots. However, in order to succeed, it is necessary to fulfill all breeding conditions. Immediately after planting, the tuber is weakly watered and a greenhouse is created, covering the pot with a plastic cup or film. After 3-6 weeks, small sprouts appear, which should be grown by analogy with sprouts grown from seeds. Cyclamen, grown from a tuber, begins flowering after a year and a half.
Problems and features
Some problems of growing cyclamen can make even experienced growers surprised. Each of them often lies in the wrong care.
If cyclamen fades, the leaves turn yellow. The problem of yellowing of leaves and wilting of homemade cyclamen can occur for several reasons: lack or lack of moisture in the soil or air, starvation, pest damage or lack of space. How to save cyclamen? It is necessary to transplant the plant in a large pot with completely renewed soil, to produce proper watering and complementary feeding, and also to make sure that all the conditions for caring for dryacre are met. Cyclamen also turns yellow after flowering, in which case it is considered normal.
Home cyclamen is one of the most amazing, beautiful and unpretentious plants that will be an excellent gift and decoration in every apartment and garden. Observing all the conditions for the proper care of the alpine violet, the florist will undoubtedly be awarded the enchanting flowering of this plant.