The exact name of this heat-loving plant is Japanese henomeles; shrub successfully survives in regions characterized by a mild climate. Plants in areas with a harsh winter, when the temperature drops below -30 °, experience a negative impact. They have one-year shoots and buds, most likely, will freeze slightly, and the quince will bloom in the spring not so magnificently as expected, but the branches that spent the cold months under the cover of snow will actively develop with the onset of heat.
Possibilities of accommodation in the garden area
Japanese quince needs to be located on the most illuminated area, all varieties are extremely light-requiring and little bloom in the shade. It is resistant to drought, while taking care of the Japanese quince at a young age involves regular moderate moisture, you should avoid stagnant moisture.
For most varieties and species of chhenomeles, humus-rich soils exhibiting a weakly acid reaction are suitable: light sandy, sod-podzolic, loamy, with caution it is necessary to treat peaty areas. If you plant a Japanese quince in the alkaline zone, the likelihood of chlorosis leaves.
Preliminary preparation and disembarkation
Because of how properly and how fully the soil was prepared, most aspects of shrub cultivation depend. From autumn, the plot is cleared of weeds, immediately before planting (until spring) they keep it under black steam. Heavy and poor land is diluted with sand and leaf soil, potash and phosphorus fertilizers, peat-manure compost are actively introduced.
Planting and care for the Japanese quince in the open field begins in early spring, when the soil has thawed, but the soil has not started to dissolve. Autumn planting of quinces during abundant leaf fall is permissible, but not always advisable, as henomeles likes warmth, he may die.
Experts insist that the transplantation of the Japanese quince should be done only 1 time - when it is placed in a permanent "place of residence", where it can stably blossom and bear fruit for 50-60 years. The plant does not tolerate any such manipulations, excessive intervention in its growing season can cause a decrease in the number of flowers. This should be taken into account when designing the landscape, it is worthwhile to think in advance where the shrub with reddish, rarely white and pink buds will look most advantageous.
In order for the blooming quince to be lush in summer, the soil around it should be carefully loosened, removing weeds on the way. Around, you can pour a 3-inch layer of pine nut shell, chopped bark, peat, sawdust. Mulching is best done in the spring, when the soil is heated and sufficiently moist, and the autumn procedure should be started after the onset of freezing temperatures.
In the first 12 months, the planted plant does not need to be treated with a liquid top dressing (the risk of damage to the roots is great), initially laid in the spring in the hole of nutrients will be enough. For 2-3 years after transplantation, when the snow has already gone, the process of leaving is reduced to the introduction of organic and mineral fertilizers: potash and superphosphate compounds and compost are laid in the tree circle, and in the summer they inject a solution of bird droppings, ammonium nitrate. When deciding how and how to feed henomeles, it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the soil and the region of growth.
In the fall, the Japanese quince shelters with spruce leaves, covered with fallen leaves - these measures will help it survive the winter cold. Wintering cuttings and young saplings can be covered with a spanbond or lutrasil, low-growing shrubs can even be “booked” with the help of dimensional wooden boxes, large cardboard boxes.
The simplest and most reliable method of agrarians is recognizing the cultivation of a plant from seeds. By eating or processing ripe fruit, the heart is harvested, in which there are suitable brown seeds for planting. They are removed and immediately sown in the fall in the ground, so they overwintered directly in the soil. The germination of all types of quince can reach 80%, with the onset of heat thick shoots appear, moreover, they do not need preliminary preparation of the soil.
If it was not possible to plant the seeds before the arrival of cold weather, they should be laid on the stratification - put for 2-3 months in moistened sand (the ambient temperature should not exceed + 5 ° С).
Inclined growth in spring is planted in the ground in the place where they are planned to leave for further growth and fruiting. Biennial bushes acquire an elongated root of the core type, if you try to move them to another place, the roots can be damaged, so experts recommend leaving henomeles alone after the first transplant.
All varieties perfectly tolerate a haircut, which is very appreciated among gardeners. The question of how to trim a shrub comes down to solving the following tasks: sanitizing, shaping a bush, rejuvenation. To work you need to pick up long thick gloves that can protect against sharp spines.
In order to sanitation cut dry shoots, which died during frosts. Here you will need a garden file and a pruner, the treatment points should be abundantly treated with garden pitch. After this procedure, the bush comes to life, grows faster.
Pruning for the formation of the bush is carried out at the very beginning of the spring period, when henomeles will be 4-5 years old. The annual removal of part of the root growth allows to slow down the increase in the size of the bushes and their density, for a harmonious growth only 2 root offsprings will be enough. Moreover, it is better to leave the shoots growing horizontally in 20-40 cm from the ground. Vertical and creeping processes should be cut.
Anti-aging pruning is relevant when the Japanese quince reaches 8-10 years of age. Bush thinned, depriving elongated, thin and weak branches, leaving no more than 15 strong shoots. Only the branches of 3–4 years old bear fruit, so the crown is formed in such a way that only processes not older than 5 years always remain.
Preventing the onset of disease
Decorative fruiting Japanese quince is not afraid of most pests. However, in conditions of high humidity and stagnation of water, necrosis and mottling may occur, the fungus can lead to drying out and deformation of the leaves. Cercosporosis is expressed in the form of round brown, and ramilariasis in the form of brown spots. Treatment is reduced to spraying with a soap-copper liquid or fundozol. A safer method is to use onion infusion.
The fruits ripen in September-October, each bush can produce up to 2-3 kg of crop, it all depends on the intensity of flowering plants in the spring. The crop is pollinated in a cross way, so if you need fruit, you need to plant several seedlings nearby or 2-3 varieties at once. In the middle lane, the harvest will remain green for a long time, you need to have time to harvest it before frost, otherwise its taste qualities will be broken.