Warm plaster called special finishing mixture, which has enhanced thermal insulation properties. It can not serve as an independent heater in regions that are characterized by a cold climate, but can significantly improve the indoor climate. Such operational capabilities arise due to the presence of porous components in the composition.
Plaster can be applied on brick, ceramic, wood, concrete surfaces.
Features of the use of warm plaster
Experts point out the following key material advantages:
- certified mixtures are environmentally friendly, they do not contain hazardous substances;
- vapor-permeable layer does not allow moisture, it does not develop fungi and mold;
- warm plaster is easily combined with a variety of finishing materials;
- a surface is formed that has a low weight and sufficient strength;
- it is a full-fledged finish, it needs only superficial application of vapor-permeable paint;
- special additives ensure the plasticity of the finished layer, optimum adhesion;
- the material is equally good for the protection of interior walls and the execution of the facade finish;
- the mixture has a high fire safety performance;
- as a result, a monolithic layer is formed that does not have cold bridges;
- such facade plaster can be easily restored.
The main function of the considered building mix is to create a base for finishing, enhancing the heat-insulating properties of the surface. In winter, such measures help to prevent heat leakage, and in the summer, penetration of warm currents. As a result, the cost of air conditioning and heating is significantly reduced, and there is no need to prealign the walls.
The essence of the finishing material
As a result of the experiments, the ideal combination of components was derived:
- Binding agents - lime, cement, gypsum in various proportions.
- Polymers are plasticizers, antiseptics, ingredients that form bubbles.
- Fillers - vermiculite, polystyrene granules, foamed glass, sawdust, perlite sand.
- Water repellents - compositions that are responsible for moisture resistance.
Fine sawdust is considered the most budgetary filler, they are usually used in cases where warm plaster is made independently at home. Due to its low cost, expanded polystyrene deserves attention, it has optimal thermal insulation properties, but is combustible, so it is used with great care.
Perlite sand is a mineral filler made on the basis of volcanic glass, it needs additional protection from moisture penetration. Vermiculite also absorbs water, but it is highly resistant to fire, thanks to which it is widely used. Against the background of analogs, foamglass has the most advantageous position - it is not subject to shrinkage, is fireproof and is not afraid of wet operating conditions.
Specificity of internal and external works
Depending on the planned front of the event, the appropriate types of warm plasters are determined. For example, for the processing of facades it is customary to use foam polystyrene based mixtures containing lime and cement. This option is characterized by good moisture resistance, ease of application, low weight and affordable cost.
Warm plaster for interior work, based on sawdust, is excellent in solving interior problems. Here the composition also includes cement, gypsum and paper, which ensures enhanced adhesion to wood and brick surfaces.
There is also a universal material - expanded vermiculite, such a warm facade plaster can be used with the same success for interior work.
You need to be careful with the mixtures that are in the composition of the plaster, as the latter absorbs moisture intensively, this variation is more suitable for wall decoration in living rooms, bedrooms, corridors. If there is a need for additional sound insulation of the premises, it is better to give preference to brands with a fibrous structure - in this case the layer of deposition should be at least 50 mm.
When laying the material, its significant consumption is manifested: applying warm plaster with a two-centimeter layer will require 8-12 kg of the composition to process one square meter. Accordingly, on a 4-centimeter layer will need 16-24 kg. Coverage is usually required for the following tasks:
- additional reinforcement of ceilings and floors;
- elimination of heat leaks from pipelines for water supply and sewage;
- additional sound and heat insulation of external and internal walls;
- insulation of door and window openings;
- seal of cracks and joints.
Warm plaster for interior work contributes to bringing the insulation of light walls to the level of regulatory standards. As a result, the walls are still considered to be single-layered, and this is a big plus.
The material under consideration helps to solve not only energy-economic problems, but also effectively eliminates the breathability of large-block masonry (provided that it is double-sided plastering).
Coating formation technology
Non-professionals can also apply a warm composition to the walls - the process is no different from the rules of working with ordinary plaster. Manipulations are divided into several successive stages:
- preparation of tools - need spatulas, beacons (special strips of plastic or metal), level, trowel;
- walls are prepared for plastering, in particular, they remove the old coating, remove dirt and irregularities;
- the surface is primed;
- warm plaster for the facade or interior also needs to be prepared - the whole package of the dry mixture is placed in a large container, according to the instructions, water is added. The composition is mixed using a construction mixer until a uniform consistency, then it must be left for 5 minutes to infuse;
- the solution helps to fix the beacons, the position of the latter is checked using a tensioned rope or building level. Lighthouses are needed in order to determine the potential level of the future wall, the plane that will arise as a result of plaster overlay;
- a trowel is used to apply a heat-saving composition, and the rule, based on beacons, is leveling the solution;
- layer thickness should be no more than 2 cm, it will dry within 4-5 hours, then a second layer can be applied.
If we neglect the last rule, there is a great risk that the plaster will soon peel off.
Measures for finishing and leveling warm plaster
It should be borne in mind that warm plaster is suitable for exterior work, and the interior also cannot be used in a “pure” form as a topcoat, and that the surface has the expected aesthetics, it needs a decorative layer. And at this stage there can be problems - a light finishing putty should have enhanced vapor permeability compared with the insulation in question. Otherwise, moisture may accumulate. Another important requirement: the outer layer must be resistant to atmospheric manifestations.
In order not to be mistaken with the choice, experts recommend resorting to a tandem of mixtures from the same manufacturer, then the inner and outer layers will harmonize and complement each other.
The relationship of characteristics and components
As mentioned above, depending on the properties of the constituent parts, the possibilities of using plaster indoors and on facades are determined; in the latter case, indicators of counteraction to water and temperature changes are important. We must not forget that lime, cement, plasticizers, various functional additives prevail in the composition. If we take the properties of polystyrene foam filler, we can give the average characteristics of coatings, called warm:
- specific gravity per cubic meter varies between 200-300 kg;
- water absorption in relation to the mass is kept at 70%;
- Flammability index G1;
- thermal conductivity indicators - within 0.07 W / m degrees.
Pros and cons of the material
Strengths of gypsum and other types of plaster:
- compliance with international environmental standards;
- ease of application;
- no dust and odors;
- seamless surface;
- layers do not crack during building shrinkage.
The downside is the need for subsequent decoration of the coating.
Warm plaster do it yourself
Since the recipe does not imply the use of scarce components, so the plastic mixture can be made independently. If we compare the cost of materials and the price of the finished package, the first option clearly wins. It is necessary to purchase 4 parts of a porous filler (it improves vapor permeability, does not allow moisture to accumulate, perlite or vermiculite is optimal) and 1 part of cement.
Plasticizers reinforce the adhesion of the mortar to the treated surface, thanks to this class of additives, the plaster can be safely applied to the front elements of a complicated configuration. An excellent alternative can be PVA glue, it is added not more than 50 g per 10 liters of the finished mixture.
It is impossible to call the preparation of a solution labor-intensive: initially, glue or plasticizer must be carefully diluted in water. In another container, a filler and dry cement are mixed, and during the continuous operation of the mixer, a water-adhesive solution is introduced uniformly. The mixture is kneaded until a homogeneous thick state. Like the purchase option, plaster need some time to insist.
To improve the adhesion of the applied composition, experts advise that you first moisten the treated wall. Before working, the solution needs to be mixed again, it is ready, if it resembles thick sour cream in density.
Wall insulation with special plaster is a convenient solution in cases where a delicate and easy-to-use improvement of the operational characteristics of facades and interiors is required. Affordable cost and versatility bring this type of coverage to the leaders in the core market.